Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Reader Login
  • Users Online:6827
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Most popular articles (Since October 08, 2013)

  Archives   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Management of tooth mobility in the periodontology clinic: An overview and experience from a tertiary healthcare setting
Clement Chinedu Azodo, Paul Erhabor
January-June 2016, 15(1):50-57
Background: Tooth mobility, considered as the extent of horizontal and vertical tooth displacement created by examiners force, is caused trauma and periodontal disease. It is a common presenting complaint in periodontal clinic and may result in occlusal instability, dietary restriction, masticatory disturbances, esthetic challenge, and impaired quality of life. The treatment of tooth mobility involves a combination of treatment of the etiology usually by nonsurgical and surgical periodontal treatment, occlusal adjustment, and splinting. This article reviewed occlusal adjustment and splinting in the management of tooth mobility and reported our experience in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria on tooth mobility managed with 0.5 mm hard stainless steel wire reinforced composite splint. Results: Composite splinting reinforced with 0.5 mm HSS wire facilitates healing of periodontally compromised teeth with mobility after they have been treated with nonsurgical periodontal therapy and occlusal adjustment. Conclusion: Splinting is a well-accepted integral part of holistic periodontal treatment which results in morale boost, improved patient comfort, and oral functions.
  75,332 3,885 -
Sexual and reproductive health: Concepts and current status among Nigerians
Lawrence Omo-Aghoja
July-December 2013, 12(2):103-113
Background: Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) came to the fore against a background of increasing rates of liberal sexual behavior and activity, with its attendant reproductive health implications and sequelae globally. The Millennium Development Goals, particularly eradication of poverty and hunger, cannot be achieved if population and reproductive health issues are not addressed. Materials and Methods: This review involved an extensive search of databases that included Medline, Elsevier, Medscape, Medicine and PubMed. Literature on the subject was also researched using manual library searches of cited textbooks and articles in journals. The search covered a period of 1960 to 2013, but the literature included was from 1985 till date. Results: The status of SRH of Nigerians remains abysmally poor and available data tend to suggest worsening indices. Conclusion: The right of every citizen, particularly women, to lead the highest standard of health must be secured as good health, in particular SRH, is a sine qua non for productive and fulfilling life. The right of all citizens, especially women, to control all aspects of their heath, in particular their own fertility, is basic to their empowerment. Therefore, a society where individuals have knowledge, skills and resources to enjoy their sexuality is one we must all aspire to be part of and bequeath to future generations.
  52,051 1,538 2
Surrogacy in Nigeria: Legal, ethical, socio cultural, psychological and religious musings
Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora, Maryjoanne Chinyem Umeora, Nkechi Bridget Emma-Echiegu, Felix Nzube Chukwuneke
July-December 2014, 13(2):105-109
  27,394 693 -
Vaginal delivery after three previous caesarean sections: A report of two cases
Olatunde Onafowokan, Godwin O Akaba, Francis Adebayo
July-December 2016, 15(2):97-99
Vaginal birth after one caesarean section (CS) is considered safe in selected women. However, women with more than one CS in low-income settings are at higher risk of complications with vaginal birth. Thus, abdominal delivery is recommended for women with more than one CS in low-income countries unlike in high-income countries. This study was designed to raise awareness on the remote possibility of safe vaginal delivery after three CS in low-income countries. The records of two women who had vaginal deliveries after three previous CS were retrieved and reviewed. Both women presented in advanced labour and had unplanned but successful vaginal deliveries. There was no uterine rupture. The risks and consequences of uterine rupture may outweigh the benefits of unplanned vaginal birth after more than one CS. These unusual cases suggest the remote possibility of success and the need for further studies on defining safety guidelines for low-resource settings.
  21,742 355 -
A perspective study on the attitude to and practice of voluntary blood donation in a tertiary referral hospital in South India
Umakanth Siromani, Tsuneo Tsubaki, Dolly Daniel, Joy John Mammen, Sukesh Chandra Nair
July-December 2014, 13(2):85-89
Background: Indian blood donation system currently operates using both bloods from voluntary and replacement donors. Indian government has aimed to achieve 100 per cent voluntary non-remunerated blood donation due to safety concerns in the near future. Objectives: To determine behaviours and attitudes towards voluntary blood donation among residents at Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India and understanding the reasons for donating and not donating blood, appropriate communication techniques for motivation among the local residents, appropriateness of messages, and evaluation of the blood bank service as a step towards improving effectiveness of voluntary blood donor recruitment and retention strategy. Materials and Methods: 435 subjects were participated in the study. Donors and non-donors were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on blood donation for data collection. Statistical data reliability checked using Chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon two-sample tests at a level of significance <0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that voluntary blood donors give blood because they "want to help others" from their altruism behaviour. On the other hand, the main reasons cited by non-donor were: "never asked, don't know where/how to give, don't know anyone in need", "weakness", and "nervousness" from fear and anxiety, attitudes due to myths and misconceptions about blood donation. Conclusion: The donors and non-donors were found to vary in their behaviors as well as their attitudes and beliefs. Perceptions in blood donation were pronounced among Vellore residents, which indicated a need for improved awareness on these issues. Overall evaluations of the blood bank services were satisfactory. However blood bank should reduce waiting time and improve donor care. The blood bank should launch promotional programs to address the value of blood donation and to correct some of the misconceptions among residents in Vellore.
  16,531 260 2
Prevalence and risk factors for helicobacter pylori infection in gastroduodenal diseases in Kano, Nigeria
Ahmad Kumo Bello, Ali Bala Umar, Musa Muhammad Borodo
January-June 2018, 17(1):41-46
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been well noted as a causative agent of many diseases in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract notably, gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Determining the burden and the risk factors for acquiring this infection may be crucial to containing it and its sequelae in Kano, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was cross-sectional in design. Questionnaires were administered in dyspeptic patients to obtain the relevant clinical, and sociodemographic data. Upper GI endoscopy was performed in the patients, and gastric biopsy specimens were taken and sent to the histopathology laboratory for assessment and H. pylori identification. Results: Of the 306 participants, 136 (44.4%) were males, while 170 (55.6%) were females, with male: female ratio of 1:1.3. The ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 84 years with a mean of 41.2 ± 15.3 years. Of the 306 samples, 250 (81.7%) were positive for H. pylori. This gives H. pylori prevalence of 81.7%. Only 4 (1.3%) of the participants belonged to the higher social class, out of which 25% had positive H. pylori, while 230 (75.2%) participants belonged to the lower socioeconomic class with 87.8% H. pylori prevalence. The lower social class had a significant association (P < 0.0001) with increased H. pylori infection. A total of 290 subjects (94.8%) shared a room with three or more other siblings in childhood, out of which 233 (80.3%) had H. pylori. Only 80 subjects (26.1%) used pipe-borne water in childhood, while 226 (73.9%) sourced their water from either well, pond or stream during childhood. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of H. pylori in Kano, and low socioeconomic status, unclean water source, overcrowding, and cigarette smoking were significant risk factors for H. pylori infection.
  15,475 721 9
Serum sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in women with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in Oredo local Government, Benin Metropolis: A pilot study
Olanike Funmilola Adewolu
January-June 2013, 12(1):1-5
Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia (hypertension in pregnancy in association with the excretion of >300 mg of urinary protein per day after 20 weeks of gestation) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy seen in Benin City, Nigeria. It contributes significantly to maternal mortality, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal mortality. Studies have been performed to evaluate the role of electrolytes in etiopathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The outcome of the studies has varied ina different environment and population. Objective: The objectiveof this study is to determine the role of serum sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia in this environment. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were involved in the study. 20 were normotensive non-pregnant women, 20 normotensive pregnant women, 20 with preeclampsia. They were of similar age groups, with singleton pregnancies and in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Serum sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium was assayed in the three groups. Serum sodium and potassium was assayed using the ion-selective electrode method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Student Version 13 for Windows. Results: Mean serum sodium was non-significantly raised in women with preeclampsia above the upper limit of normal reference interval (151 ± 1.5 mmol/l) (P > 0.05) while it was within normal reference interval of 140 ± 2.3 mmol/L for normotensive pregnant women and 144 ± 4.2 mmol/L for normotensive non-pregnant women. Serum potassium, calcium, magnesium were all within normal reference intervals across the three groups studied. Conclusion: Serum sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium do not seem to play a vital role in the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia in this environment as there was no statistically significant difference in the values of the electrolytes assayed across the three groups studied.
  11,250 610 -
Lead in potable water sources in Anambra State, South East, Nigeria
Ignatius C Maduka, Anthony I Anakwuo, Nnamdi P Ogueche
January-June 2018, 17(1):26-30
Introduction: Due to lack of treated water supply in major cities and settlements in Anambra state, Nigeria, majority of the population obtain potable water directly from boreholes, streams, sachet, harvested rain, and well water sources. Lead-laden potable water may be a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Anambra state, Nigeria. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the presence of lead in potable water sources in Anambra state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Water samples were systematically collected from 81 water sampling sites in different senatorial zones of the state. Lead was estimated in the water samples using Varian AA240 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The mean levels of lead in the water samples in all the senatorial zones of the state were higher than the maximum contaminant limit (0.01 mg/L) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The mean level of lead in harvested rain, sachet, and stream waters (0.34 ± 0.23, 0.37 ± 0.08, and 0.23 ± 0.06 mg/L, respectively) was higher in Anambra South senatorial zone compared to the WHO maximum contaminant limit. Furthermore, Anambra South has higher (P < 0.001) mean lead level compared to the North and Central senatorial zones. Conclusion: This study reveals significantly high lead levels in potable water sources in Anambra state, Nigeria. The water samples should be well treated to remove this harmful toxic heavy metal which is very dangerous to health.
  11,329 237 2
Prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among medical students in a Nigerian medical school
Afiong Oboko Oku, Eme Theodora Owoaje, Oboko Oboko Oku, Bassey Monday Ikpeme
January-June 2015, 14(1):29-34
Introduction: Several international studies suggest that medical school training is associated with high levels of stress. Although stress is peculiar to the medical profession, it is rarely given the desired attention, especially in resource-constrained settings. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of stress stressors, coping strategies of medical students in the University of Calabar, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey of 451 medical students was conducted on available classes during the study period. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents. Data were summarized using proportions, and Chi-square test was used to explore associations between categorical variables. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Majority (94.2%), of undergraduate medical trainees perceived the training as stressful. The major stressors identified were excessive academic work load (82.3%), inadequate holidays (76.4%), and insufficient time for recreation (76.2%). Feeling depressed, sleeping problems and anxiety were the most common effects of stress reported by the respondents. The coping strategies adopted by the students were mainly positive. Perceived stress was significantly associated with being in the clinical level of study, residing on campus and a higher monthly allowance (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Majority of the students interviewed perceived their training as stressful. There is, therefore, an urgent need for medical educators to introduce of stress management courses or programs into the curriculum.
  10,336 597 6
Ebola viral disease in Nigeria: The panic and cultural threat
Odidika U J Umeora, Nkechi Bridget Emma-Echiegu, Maryjoanne Chinyem Umeora, Nnennaya Ajayi
January-June 2014, 13(1):1-5
  9,276 363 9
Anesthesia for emergency cesarean section: A comparison of spinal versus general anesthesia on maternal and neonatal outcomes
Vitus Okwuchukwu Obi, Odidika Ugochukwu J. Umeora
January-June 2018, 17(1):31-34
Background: Despite the relative safety of cesarean section (CS), increasing CS rate is a cause for concern to obstetricians and anesthetists because of the attendant increased health risk one of which is the risk of anesthesia. The choice of anesthesia for cesarean section depends on the indication for the surgery, the urgency of intervention required, the maternal and/or fetal status, and the patient's desires. Despite the paradigm shift toward spinal anesthesia, general anesthesia is still commonly administered in our facility for some specific indications. Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients who had emergency CS under spinal anesthesia compared with those who had general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study comparing the obstetric outcome of patients who had emergency CS under spinal anesthesia compared with those who had the surgery under general anesthesia. Data analysis was done using statistical Epi Info version 7.2.1. Results: The most common indication for surgery in the spinal group was cephalopelvic disproportion while that for the general anesthesia group was antepartum hemorrhage/placenta previa. Patients who had spinal anesthesia had less intraoperative blood loss compared with those who had general anesthesia (814 ± 124 vs. 842 ± 324; P = 0.0007). There was a significant difference in the intraoperative blood loss >1000 ml among women who had spinal anesthesia relative to women who had general anesthesia (odds ratio [OR]: 0.6832, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3390–0.9779; P = 0.0005). Spinal anesthesia was associated with a reduced risk of having a 1st-min Apgar score <7 (OR: 0.6096, 95% CI: 0.4066–0.9140; P = 0.016). There was no significant difference in the 5th-min Apgar score in both groups. There was also no significant difference in the number of neonates admitted into the Intensive Care Units. The maternal and perinatal mortality was not different in both groups. Conclusion: Spinal anesthesia was associated with reduced risk of blood loss and reduced risk of low Apgar score in the 1st min. There was no difference in the 5th-min Apgar score and maternal and neonatal mortality.
  9,004 629 1
Hysterosalphingographic findings in women with infertility in Sokoto North Western Nigeria
Mohammed Danfulani, Máaji Sadisu Mohammed, Saidu Sule Ahmed, Yunusa Garba Haruna
January-June 2014, 13(1):19-23
Background: Patients who presented with infertility could have a structural deformity that can be responsible for it. Hysterosalphingography (HSG) is a special contrast examination that is used to assess the structural integrity of the cervical canal, uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. This study reviewed the pattern of HSG findings in patients with infertility in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Descriptive retrospective study of patients who have been referred for HSG examination to our center. A total of 317 patients that had HSG examination done in our center from July 2009 to August 2012 were reviewed. The information retrieved from their records included biodata, indication for examination, summary of radiologist report. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Software SPSS version 18 for windows Results: A total of 317 patients were involved in the study, their ages ranged from 17 to 48 years. (mean 32.5 ± 5.5 years). The indications were primary infertility 143 (45.1%) and secondary 174 (54.9%) patients. Report showed that 139 (41.7%) patients had normal HSG findings and the remaining 178 (58.3%) had abnormalities in the cervical canal, uterine cavity or fallopian tubes. Tubal pathologies constituted the commonest finding 112 (33.6%) followed by uterine (25.5%) and cervical the least 45 (13.5%) patients. It was observed that majority of the lesions occurred in combination. Conclusion: HSG has a very high diagnostic yield in the management of infertility and should be routinely employed in patients being evaluated for infertility.
  8,643 317 1
Prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pregnant women in a tertiary health facility, southeast Nigeria
Ikechukwu B O Dimejesi, Odidika U J Umeora, Vincent Emeka Egwuatu
January-June 2014, 13(1):56-61
Context: Pregnant women in resource-scarce countries are vulnerable to helminthic infestation. Aims and Objectives: to document the prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthic infestation among booked expectant mothers in this region. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Pregnant women who were counseled and consented to the study were randomly recruited at the booking clinic. They were interviewed and had their blood and stool specimens collected for laboratory analysis. Data was analysed using epi info statistical package version 3.4.1. Result: One hundred and thirty one (32.4%) stool samples out of the four hundred and four samples yielded positive results. The helminth species isolated included Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. Ascaris lumbricoides (65.6%) was the most prevalent. Two women (1.5%) had mixed infections. Though the intensity of infection was generally low. Conclusion: Antenartal clinic attendees in Abakaliki have some degree of helminthic infestation, routine deworming during the prenatal period is advocated.
  8,345 356 2
Nutritional status of perinatally HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy from a resource-poor rural South African community
Antonio George Lentoor
January-June 2018, 17(1):1-6
Objective: In Sub-Saharan Africa, millions of children are suffering from HIV and coexisting child undernutrition. Despite efforts to curb the spread of HIV through the availability of treatment and various nutritional programmes, it has been argued that undernutrition remains highly prevalent in rural areas. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and psychosocial factors influencing the nutritional status in the sample of rural-based HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric and home environment data were collected from 152 perinatally HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy who lived with their primary caregivers in a rural Eastern Cape community. Results: More than half of the sample of children had inadequate nutritional status. The prevalence of stunting particularly was high (36.2%), while 12% were underweight and only 2.7% presented with wasting. Coexisting poor quality home-environment (P < 0.01) added to this burden. Younger age children who lived with a younger biological caregiver were found to present more with stunting than older age children (χ2 [n = 152] = 14.79, P = 0.005), but no significant differences were observed for underweight or wasting. Conclusion: It is important in a context such as South Africa, with the double burden of HIV infection and poverty, that all efforts be directed at alleviating undernutrition. Early pediatric HIV management should not only focus on the provision of treatment but should also prioritize the quality of care of HIV-positive children in the home to improve on their nutritional health.
  7,972 513 1
The effect of bacterial colonization of the embryo transfer catheter on Outcome of In vitro Fertilization–Embryo transfer treatment
Roy N Maduka, James A Osaikhuwuomwan, Michael E Aziken
January-June 2018, 17(1):7-13
Background: In vitro fertilization–embryo transfer (IVF − ET) has become a core treatment method for managing infertility. Bacterial contamination of the ET catheter may affect outcome, but there is still no consensus of evidence. Objectives: This study aims to assess the effect of bacterial colonization of the ET catheter tip on the clinical pregnancy rate in an IVF–ET treatment. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study among women undergoing IVF–ET treatment was undertaken. The patients selected had both cervical swab and the tip of the ET catheter cultured. The patients were grouped into positive (bacterial isolated) and negative (no bacterial isolated) based on the culture result. The clinical pregnancy rate (primary outcome) between the two groups was compared. Results: A total of 80 patients were selected. In 34 patients (42.25%), the cervical culture was positive, while 46 patients (57.50%) had negative cervical culture. Catheter tip culture was positive in 27 patients (33.75%) and negative in 53 patients (66.25%). The predominant microorganisms isolated were Escherichia coli (23.75%), Staphylococcus spp. (18.75%), and Streptococcus spp. (15.00%). The clinical pregnancy rate was 26.25%. The significant factors affecting clinical pregnancy were the age of the patient (P = 0.044), duration of infertility (P = 0.01), and culture result (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Bacterial colonization of the ET catheter tip is associated with a reduction in the clinical pregnancy rate. Utility of routine cervical swab; microscopy, culture, and sensitivity at recruitment of patients for IVF–ET treatment is highlighted.
  7,364 273 -
Determinants of occupational health and safety: Knowledge, attitude, and safety practices toward occupational hazards of sawmill workers in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State
Amenze O Onowhakpor, Gabriel O Abusu, Bunmi Adebayo, Hendrith A Esene, Obehi H Okojie
January-June 2017, 16(1):58-64
Background: Sawmilling operations involve a lot of manual handling which exposes the workers to numerous occupational health hazards, which can impact on their occupational health and safety. The knowledge, attitude and safety practices of sawmill workers are paramount for the mitigation and control of these hazards to ensure optimal health and safety. Objectives: This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and safety practices of sawmill workers towards occupational health hazards in Egor Local Government Area, Edo State. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out amongst 178 sawmills workers selected using stratified sampling technique. Structured interviewer’s administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analysed with statistical package for scientific solutions version 21.0 software. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done and level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The mean age (standard deviation) of respondents was 34.69±9.91. One hundred and seventy five (98.3%) of the respondents were males. A majority 165 (92.7%) of the respondents were aware of dust and noise 160 (89.9%), as occupational hazards in sawmill. One hundred and forty eight (83.1%) of the respondents had positive attitude towards occupational health hazards in sawmill while almost three fifth 103 (57.9%) of the respondent had poor work safety practices. Conclusion: Majority of the sawmill workers had fair knowledge of occupational hazards and positive attitudes towards occupational hazards. However, poor safety practices were evident. There is need to improve the knowledge of sawmill workers in relation to occupational hazards and safety practices so as to mitigate its negative consequences.
  7,126 482 1
Knowledge of malaria and adherence to its preventive measures among adults attending out-patient clinics of a Nigerian tertiary hospital: Has anything changed?
Godpower C Michael, Ibrahim Aliyu, Bukar A Grema
January-June 2017, 16(1):43-51
Background: Despite global control efforts, malaria still accounts for preventable morbidity and mortality in Africa. Reported knowledge of its preventive measures appears high, but disparity exists between knowledge and uptake of preventive practices in Nigeria. It becomes necessary to evaluate adherence to use of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and other malaria preventive measures at peak periods of malaria transmission as the Millennium Development Goal era terminates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the general and pediatric out-patient clinics of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, among 413 adult patients and caregivers of children selected by systematic sampling technique and using a validated interviewer-administered questionnaire. Their knowledge of malaria and utilization of and adherence to preventive measure utilization were assessed. Results: The respondents’ mean age was 33.6 ± 8.9 years. Majority (90.6%) had adequate knowledge of malaria. Their mean malaria knowledge score was 78.7%. Among those who used ITNs, only 54.1% adhered to daily use. For other preventive measures, 65.3, 52.3, 46.5, and 25.2% adhered to environmental sanitation, insecticide spraying, wearing protective clothing, and mosquito repellent use, respectively. Hot weather was the main barrier to ITNs and wearing protective clothing adherence, whereas cost, lack of time, fear of side effects was the barrier to adherence to insecticide spraying, environmental sanitation, and mosquito repellent, respectively. Tertiary education was associated with adequate knowledge of malaria (χ2 = 8.36, P = 0.004). There was also association between adequate knowledge of malaria and monthly environmental sanitation participation (χ2 = 9.06, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Knowledge of malaria was high but adherence to practice was low. Nonadherence with preventive measures is an obstacle to achieving malaria control and could be overcome by effective mass education and addressing adherence barriers.
  7,067 300 -
Level of awareness, and factors associated with willingness to participate in the National Health Insurance Scheme among traders in Abakaliki main market, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Benedict Ndubueze Azuogu, Ugochukwu C Madubueze, Chihurumnanya Alo, Lawrence Ulu Ogbonnaya, Nnennaya A Ajayi
January-June 2016, 15(1):18-23
Introduction: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced in Nigeria in 2005, and nine years after its inception only 3.5% of the population have been enrolled in three Sectors of the Scheme. Traders and others in the informal sector are not involvement in the scheme. This study was conducted to assess the level of awareness, and factors that could affect the willingness of traders in Abakaliki main market to participate in the National Health Insurance Scheme. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study of 419 traders (53% males and 47% females) was carried out using a three stage sampling technique. Data was collected using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire, and was analyzed using SPSS (version 20) and Mathcad 7 Professional software. Frequencies and percentages were calculated, while Chi square test and Z-score were used to test for associations, with P < 0.05 set as level of significance. Results: Only 127 (30.3%) of the 419 traders were aware of NHIS, and significant majority (73.2%) of those aware of the scheme were willing to participate. No factor was significantly associated with willingness to participate. Conclusion: Awareness of NHIS was very poor among the traders, but majority of them were willing to participate in the scheme. Enlightenment campaigns should be embarked upon in the markets to increase awareness of the scheme among the traders, as this could influence their participation.
  6,950 334 2
Acute effects of consumption of energy drink on intraocular pressure and blood pressure-pilot study
Jennifer Aleye Ebeigbe, Eki Anita Obahiagbon
January-June 2013, 12(1):20-24
Context: Energy drinks are popular caffeinated beverages believed to improve cognitive function and concentration. They contain two main ingredients taurine and caffeine, which have both been reported to have effects on blood pressure (BP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on IOP and BP of healthy black young subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 undergraduates from the University of Benin, Nigeria, aged 18-30 years (mean 24.43 ± 1.54) were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were of either gender and were divided into experimental and control groups of 25 subjects each. The subjects were told to abstain from caffeine for 48 h prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and BP were measured. The experimental group consumed one can of Red Bull (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 ml) and measurements were repeated at 30, 60 and 90 min while the control group drank 250 ml of water and were tested over the same period of time. Results: When compared to baseline, a significant decrease in mean IOP was observed at 30, 60 and 90 min (P < 0.05) in the experimental group, but there was no significant difference in the mean change of the systolic and diastolic BP (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Results suggest that energy drinks produce a significant reduction in IOP, but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may however reflect the combined effect of caffeine and taurine, as present in Red Bull.
  7,020 180 -
Prevalence and antibiogram pattern of Salmonella enterica serotypes in Garhwal Region: First report from foothills of himalayas
Vikrant Negi, Monika Pathania, Rajat Prakash, Deepak Juyal, Munesh Kumar Sharma, Shekhar Pal
January-June 2018, 17(1):14-19
Introduction: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhi and Paratyphi, is endemic in India with an incidence of 102–2219/100,000 populations. The definitive diagnosis of enteric fever in patients with compatible clinical picture is isolation of Salmonellae from blood, bone marrow, stool or urine, and demonstration of four-fold rise in antibody titer to both O and H antigen of the organism between acute and convalescent-phase sera. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of various serotypes of S. enterica and their antibiogram in foot hills of Himalayas. Materials and Methods: During February 2012–January 2013, all clinically suspected patients were screened for enteric fever by Widal tube agglutination test. For the isolation of etiology, venous blood, stool and urine specimen were obtained from patients with antibody titer of ≥80 and 160 for anti-O agglutinin and anti-H agglutinin of Salmonella typhi, respectively, and ≥20 for anti-H agglutinin of S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B. Characterization and antibiogram determination of the isolates was done by conventional microbiological methods including Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion technique. Result: Among 1173 suspected cases, 373 showed a high titer of antibodies against O (≥80), H (≥160), AH (≥20), and BH (≥20) antigens. A total of 81 isolates were obtained from 76 patients (29 from blood and 49 from stool and three from urine), of which 54 were identified as Salmonella typhi, 20 as Paratyphi A and seven as Paratyphi B. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was observed in four isolates of S. typhi. Ciprofloxacin followed by co-trimoxazole was resistant to 46.5 and 36.5% of the isolates, respectively. Conclusion: This report indicates a significant percentage of drug resistance in S. enterica serotypes in Garhwal region. Periodic monitoring of the antibiogram pattern along with the implementation of strict antibiotic policies and patient education is needed.
  6,818 305 -
A 3-year review of the pattern of contraceptive use among women attending the family planning clinic of a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria
Kehinde S Okunade, Ebunoluwa Daramola, Adegbenga Ajepe, Adebayo Sekumade
July-December 2016, 15(2):69-73
Background: Contraceptives are methods or devices used to prevent pregnancy. In Nigeria, the contraceptive prevalence was reported at 15% in 2013. Aims: This study aimed to determine the pattern of contraceptive use and sociodemographic characteristics of the users of family planning services in a teaching hospital in Lagos. Subjects and Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study of women who sought contraceptive services at the family planning clinic over a 3-year period. Relevant information was extracted from the case records of these women. Data were analyzed using Epi Info statistical package for Windows. Results: A total of 594 women opted to use a form of contraception in the study, within an age range of 15–52 years and with mean age of 34.3 ± 4.2 years. Fifty-four percent (54%) of the women users belonged to the Yoruba tribe and 89.4% were of the Christian faith. Married women accounted for 97.6% of the users, with the majority (68.9%) having parity of 2–4. Majority (77.6%) of the women had at least a tertiary level of education, with 46.1% of them involved in a form of skilled occupation. Nurses were the commonest source of referrals (42.9%). A larger proportion of the women (46.3%) preferred Jadelle implant while the least used method is Norplant (0.5%). Conclusion: Equipping medical personnel with the information and skills needed to meet the increasing demand for family planning services is necessary to avert the needless increase in the incidence of unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortion, and their sequelae.
  6,615 379 5
Teething: Beliefs and behaviors of mothers attending well baby clinics in Benin City, Nigeria
Vincent Y Adam, Blessing I Abhulimhen-Iyoha
January-June 2015, 14(1):8-12
Background: Teething is an important developmental milestone in young children. Mothers attribute several symptoms to teething and their beliefs in turn affect their behavior towards the healthcare of children during the period of tooth eruption. This study assessed maternal beliefs and behaviors towards teething in young children in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among mothers who brought their babies to Well Baby Clinics in three health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria. The tool for data collection was a structured researcher-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Mothers of 420 children (mean age 16.2 ± 8.6 months) participated in the study. Over two-third 302 (71.7%) believed that infant teething is associated with various symptoms. The commonest symptoms reported were fever 258 (85.7%) and diarrhea 241 (80.0%) while the least was redness of the gums, 2 (0.7%). A greater proportion of respondents, 224 (74.4%), 186 (61.8%) and 184 (61.1%) managed teething discomfort with teething syrups, tepid sponging and teething toys respectively. More than half of the respondents 263 (54.3%) and 162 (56.3%) gave analgesics to relieve fever and oral rehydration solution (ORS) for diarrhea attributed to the teething process respectively. Conclusion: Mothers' beliefs encourage the use of "teething" as a ready explanation for childhood diseases. They utilize analgesics, ORS, teething syrup and herbal medications to relieve perceived teething symptoms. The misconception about teething can be corrected through health education of mothers when they access health facilities. The mass media may also be employed to reach a larger audience.
  6,407 281 1
Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among sickle cell patients
Osime Evarista Odaburhine
July-December 2015, 14(2):83-86
Background: Anemia is one of the important clinical significance in sickle cell disease, and a major clinical consequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is hemolytic anemia. The aim of this study is to compare the enzyme activity in sickle cell patients (SS) and normal hemoglobin (Hb) (AA) individuals. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 hundred samples comprised of 50 sickle cell patients as test subjects and 50 Hb AA individuals were used as controls. Each of the blood sample collected was screened immediately for G6PD deficiency using the methemoglobin reduction test and Randox kit. Results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found to be significantly higher in test subjects (P < 0.01) when compared with the control subjects. It was also shown that G6PD levels tend to increase with increase in age though this increase was not significant (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in G6PD levels between males and females sickle cell patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion: These results, therefore, suggests that G6PD enzyme activity is much more reduced in the sickle cell patient who may contribute to making them prone to hemolytic anemia when compared to normal individuals.
  6,197 283 1
Socio -cultural and economic determinants of poor utilization of health facilities for child delivery among the Tarok in North -central Nigeria
Titilayo C Orisaremi
July-December 2013, 12(2):60-67
Context: The study was informed by the poor state of maternal health especially in northern Nigeria and the inadequacy of the medically oriented approach that emphasizes health -facility delivery at the expense of certain traditional cultural practices of the various ethnic groups. Aims: The paper investigated and identified certain crucial socio -cultural and economic factors that inhibit health facility delivery among Tarok women in north -central Nigeria. Settings and Design: Data were collected from four Tarok communities in Langtang North local government area of Plateau State in north -central Nigeria. Qualitative research design was used to collect and to analyze data. Materials and Methods: Tools used to generate data were in -depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Sixteen key informants were individually interviewed and 24 FGD sessions were conducted for various groups of men and women of 15 years and above based on their socio -demographic background. Statistical Analysis Used: Tables were used to show the social background of the IDI and FGD participants. Results: Emerging evidence from the exploratory study showed the prevalence of risky traditional delivery practices rooted in the high value placed by the Tarok society on bravery; perception of heath facilities as places of last resort; low level of education among girls/women; and poverty; among other factors. Conclusions: Socio -cultural and economic factors are key determinants of the use of health facilities for child delivery. Addressing these factors is imperative toward achieving improved maternal and child health in Nigeria.
  6,285 160 -
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic stressors among direct and nondirect contact health care workers from a Nigerian tertiary health facility
Olufemi O Oyewole, Emmanuel A Adeniyi, Babatunde F Ajayi, Adeyemi A Olajitan, Kolawole S Oritogun
January-June 2016, 15(1):7-13
Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) among health care workers have increased with little information on ergonomic stressors' exposure. Therefore, the exposure of health care workers to ergonomic stressors and the consequent WRMDs were investigated. Materials and Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study involved 279 stratified participants from various departments of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital. Standardized Nordic and adapted European Foundation questionnaires were used to obtain data on musculoskeletal pain and ergonomic stressors. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: About 48% of the participants reported WRMDs in at least one part of the body during the 12 months preceding the study while 22.2% reported WRMDs in the last 7days. During the preceding 12 months and the last 7 days, the lower back was the most common site of disorders (29.4% and 9.7%, respectively) while the elbow joint was the least affected site. About 49.7% and 42.7% of the clinical staff and nonclinical staff, respectively, reported WRMDs in the last 12 months while 22.3% versus 22.0% reported WRMDs in the last 7 days. Female participants had a higher prevalence of WRMDs but significant gender difference existed for point prevalence only. A majority of the participants (65.8%) were exposed to 11 or more risk factors. There was a significant association between both 12-month and point prevalences of WRMDs on the one hand and exposure to painful tiring positions on the other. Conclusions: The prevalence of WRMDs was high among health care workers with the lower back being the most frequently affected body region. Work involving painful/tiring positions was the most common ergonomic risk factor associated with WRMDs.
  5,940 304 1