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Management of tooth mobility in the periodontology clinic: An overview and experience from a tertiary healthcare setting
Clement Chinedu Azodo, Paul Erhabor
January-June 2016, 15(1):50-57
Background: Tooth mobility, considered as the extent of horizontal and vertical tooth displacement created by examiners force, is caused trauma and periodontal disease. It is a common presenting complaint in periodontal clinic and may result in occlusal instability, dietary restriction, masticatory disturbances, esthetic challenge, and impaired quality of life. The treatment of tooth mobility involves a combination of treatment of the etiology usually by nonsurgical and surgical periodontal treatment, occlusal adjustment, and splinting. This article reviewed occlusal adjustment and splinting in the management of tooth mobility and reported our experience in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria on tooth mobility managed with 0.5 mm hard stainless steel wire reinforced composite splint. Results: Composite splinting reinforced with 0.5 mm HSS wire facilitates healing of periodontally compromised teeth with mobility after they have been treated with nonsurgical periodontal therapy and occlusal adjustment. Conclusion: Splinting is a well-accepted integral part of holistic periodontal treatment which results in morale boost, improved patient comfort, and oral functions.
  23,066 1,261 -
Sexual and reproductive health: Concepts and current status among Nigerians
Lawrence Omo-Aghoja
July-December 2013, 12(2):103-113
Background: Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) came to the fore against a background of increasing rates of liberal sexual behavior and activity, with its attendant reproductive health implications and sequelae globally. The Millennium Development Goals, particularly eradication of poverty and hunger, cannot be achieved if population and reproductive health issues are not addressed. Materials and Methods: This review involved an extensive search of databases that included Medline, Elsevier, Medscape, Medicine and PubMed. Literature on the subject was also researched using manual library searches of cited textbooks and articles in journals. The search covered a period of 1960 to 2013, but the literature included was from 1985 till date. Results: The status of SRH of Nigerians remains abysmally poor and available data tend to suggest worsening indices. Conclusion: The right of every citizen, particularly women, to lead the highest standard of health must be secured as good health, in particular SRH, is a sine qua non for productive and fulfilling life. The right of all citizens, especially women, to control all aspects of their heath, in particular their own fertility, is basic to their empowerment. Therefore, a society where individuals have knowledge, skills and resources to enjoy their sexuality is one we must all aspire to be part of and bequeath to future generations.
  19,036 738 -
A perspective study on the attitude to and practice of voluntary blood donation in a tertiary referral hospital in South India
Umakanth Siromani, Tsuneo Tsubaki, Dolly Daniel, Joy John Mammen, Sukesh Chandra Nair
July-December 2014, 13(2):85-89
Background: Indian blood donation system currently operates using both bloods from voluntary and replacement donors. Indian government has aimed to achieve 100 per cent voluntary non-remunerated blood donation due to safety concerns in the near future. Objectives: To determine behaviours and attitudes towards voluntary blood donation among residents at Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India and understanding the reasons for donating and not donating blood, appropriate communication techniques for motivation among the local residents, appropriateness of messages, and evaluation of the blood bank service as a step towards improving effectiveness of voluntary blood donor recruitment and retention strategy. Materials and Methods: 435 subjects were participated in the study. Donors and non-donors were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on blood donation for data collection. Statistical data reliability checked using Chi-squared tests, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon two-sample tests at a level of significance <0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that voluntary blood donors give blood because they "want to help others" from their altruism behaviour. On the other hand, the main reasons cited by non-donor were: "never asked, don't know where/how to give, don't know anyone in need", "weakness", and "nervousness" from fear and anxiety, attitudes due to myths and misconceptions about blood donation. Conclusion: The donors and non-donors were found to vary in their behaviors as well as their attitudes and beliefs. Perceptions in blood donation were pronounced among Vellore residents, which indicated a need for improved awareness on these issues. Overall evaluations of the blood bank services were satisfactory. However blood bank should reduce waiting time and improve donor care. The blood bank should launch promotional programs to address the value of blood donation and to correct some of the misconceptions among residents in Vellore.
  14,323 219 -
Surrogacy in Nigeria: Legal, ethical, socio cultural, psychological and religious musings
Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora, Maryjoanne Chinyem Umeora, Nkechi Bridget Emma-Echiegu, Felix Nzube Chukwuneke
July-December 2014, 13(2):105-109
  8,114 415 -
Ebola viral disease in Nigeria: The panic and cultural threat
Odidika U J Umeora, Nkechi Bridget Emma-Echiegu, Maryjoanne Chinyem Umeora, Nnennaya Ajayi
January-June 2014, 13(1):1-5
  5,906 315 4
Serum sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in women with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in Oredo local Government, Benin Metropolis: A pilot study
Olanike Funmilola Adewolu
January-June 2013, 12(1):1-5
Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia (hypertension in pregnancy in association with the excretion of >300 mg of urinary protein per day after 20 weeks of gestation) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy seen in Benin City, Nigeria. It contributes significantly to maternal mortality, premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation and perinatal mortality. Studies have been performed to evaluate the role of electrolytes in etiopathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The outcome of the studies has varied ina different environment and population. Objective: The objectiveof this study is to determine the role of serum sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium in etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia in this environment. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects were involved in the study. 20 were normotensive non-pregnant women, 20 normotensive pregnant women, 20 with preeclampsia. They were of similar age groups, with singleton pregnancies and in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Serum sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium was assayed in the three groups. Serum sodium and potassium was assayed using the ion-selective electrode method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Student Version 13 for Windows. Results: Mean serum sodium was non-significantly raised in women with preeclampsia above the upper limit of normal reference interval (151 ± 1.5 mmol/l) (P > 0.05) while it was within normal reference interval of 140 ± 2.3 mmol/L for normotensive pregnant women and 144 ± 4.2 mmol/L for normotensive non-pregnant women. Serum potassium, calcium, magnesium were all within normal reference intervals across the three groups studied. Conclusion: Serum sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium do not seem to play a vital role in the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia in this environment as there was no statistically significant difference in the values of the electrolytes assayed across the three groups studied.
  5,536 392 -
Hysterosalphingographic findings in women with infertility in Sokoto North Western Nigeria
Mohammed Danfulani, Máaji Sadisu Mohammed, Saidu Sule Ahmed, Yunusa Garba Haruna
January-June 2014, 13(1):19-23
Background: Patients who presented with infertility could have a structural deformity that can be responsible for it. Hysterosalphingography (HSG) is a special contrast examination that is used to assess the structural integrity of the cervical canal, uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. This study reviewed the pattern of HSG findings in patients with infertility in Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Descriptive retrospective study of patients who have been referred for HSG examination to our center. A total of 317 patients that had HSG examination done in our center from July 2009 to August 2012 were reviewed. The information retrieved from their records included biodata, indication for examination, summary of radiologist report. Data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Software SPSS version 18 for windows Results: A total of 317 patients were involved in the study, their ages ranged from 17 to 48 years. (mean 32.5 ± 5.5 years). The indications were primary infertility 143 (45.1%) and secondary 174 (54.9%) patients. Report showed that 139 (41.7%) patients had normal HSG findings and the remaining 178 (58.3%) had abnormalities in the cervical canal, uterine cavity or fallopian tubes. Tubal pathologies constituted the commonest finding 112 (33.6%) followed by uterine (25.5%) and cervical the least 45 (13.5%) patients. It was observed that majority of the lesions occurred in combination. Conclusion: HSG has a very high diagnostic yield in the management of infertility and should be routinely employed in patients being evaluated for infertility.
  4,562 225 -
Prevalence of stress, stressors and coping strategies among medical students in a Nigerian medical school
Afiong Oboko Oku, Eme Theodora Owoaje, Oboko Oboko Oku, Bassey Monday Ikpeme
January-June 2015, 14(1):29-34
Introduction: Several international studies suggest that medical school training is associated with high levels of stress. Although stress is peculiar to the medical profession, it is rarely given the desired attention, especially in resource-constrained settings. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of stress stressors, coping strategies of medical students in the University of Calabar, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey of 451 medical students was conducted on available classes during the study period. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents. Data were summarized using proportions, and Chi-square test was used to explore associations between categorical variables. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Majority (94.2%), of undergraduate medical trainees perceived the training as stressful. The major stressors identified were excessive academic work load (82.3%), inadequate holidays (76.4%), and insufficient time for recreation (76.2%). Feeling depressed, sleeping problems and anxiety were the most common effects of stress reported by the respondents. The coping strategies adopted by the students were mainly positive. Perceived stress was significantly associated with being in the clinical level of study, residing on campus and a higher monthly allowance (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Majority of the students interviewed perceived their training as stressful. There is, therefore, an urgent need for medical educators to introduce of stress management courses or programs into the curriculum.
  4,246 374 -
Prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthiasis among pregnant women in a tertiary health facility, southeast Nigeria
Ikechukwu B O Dimejesi, Odidika U J Umeora, Vincent Emeka Egwuatu
January-June 2014, 13(1):56-61
Context: Pregnant women in resource-scarce countries are vulnerable to helminthic infestation. Aims and Objectives: to document the prevalence and pattern of soil-transmitted helminthic infestation among booked expectant mothers in this region. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Pregnant women who were counseled and consented to the study were randomly recruited at the booking clinic. They were interviewed and had their blood and stool specimens collected for laboratory analysis. Data was analysed using epi info statistical package version 3.4.1. Result: One hundred and thirty one (32.4%) stool samples out of the four hundred and four samples yielded positive results. The helminth species isolated included Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, Trichuris trichuria, Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. Ascaris lumbricoides (65.6%) was the most prevalent. Two women (1.5%) had mixed infections. Though the intensity of infection was generally low. Conclusion: Antenartal clinic attendees in Abakaliki have some degree of helminthic infestation, routine deworming during the prenatal period is advocated.
  3,520 244 -
Level of awareness, and factors associated with willingness to participate in the National Health Insurance Scheme among traders in Abakaliki main market, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Benedict Ndubueze Azuogu, Ugochukwu C Madubueze, Chihurumnanya Alo, Lawrence Ulu Ogbonnaya, Nnennaya A Ajayi
January-June 2016, 15(1):18-23
Introduction: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was introduced in Nigeria in 2005, and nine years after its inception only 3.5% of the population have been enrolled in three Sectors of the Scheme. Traders and others in the informal sector are not involvement in the scheme. This study was conducted to assess the level of awareness, and factors that could affect the willingness of traders in Abakaliki main market to participate in the National Health Insurance Scheme. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study of 419 traders (53% males and 47% females) was carried out using a three stage sampling technique. Data was collected using interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire, and was analyzed using SPSS (version 20) and Mathcad 7 Professional software. Frequencies and percentages were calculated, while Chi square test and Z-score were used to test for associations, with P < 0.05 set as level of significance. Results: Only 127 (30.3%) of the 419 traders were aware of NHIS, and significant majority (73.2%) of those aware of the scheme were willing to participate. No factor was significantly associated with willingness to participate. Conclusion: Awareness of NHIS was very poor among the traders, but majority of them were willing to participate in the scheme. Enlightenment campaigns should be embarked upon in the markets to increase awareness of the scheme among the traders, as this could influence their participation.
  3,178 217 -
Socio -cultural and economic determinants of poor utilization of health facilities for child delivery among the Tarok in North -central Nigeria
Titilayo C Orisaremi
July-December 2013, 12(2):60-67
Context: The study was informed by the poor state of maternal health especially in northern Nigeria and the inadequacy of the medically oriented approach that emphasizes health -facility delivery at the expense of certain traditional cultural practices of the various ethnic groups. Aims: The paper investigated and identified certain crucial socio -cultural and economic factors that inhibit health facility delivery among Tarok women in north -central Nigeria. Settings and Design: Data were collected from four Tarok communities in Langtang North local government area of Plateau State in north -central Nigeria. Qualitative research design was used to collect and to analyze data. Materials and Methods: Tools used to generate data were in -depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Sixteen key informants were individually interviewed and 24 FGD sessions were conducted for various groups of men and women of 15 years and above based on their socio -demographic background. Statistical Analysis Used: Tables were used to show the social background of the IDI and FGD participants. Results: Emerging evidence from the exploratory study showed the prevalence of risky traditional delivery practices rooted in the high value placed by the Tarok society on bravery; perception of heath facilities as places of last resort; low level of education among girls/women; and poverty; among other factors. Conclusions: Socio -cultural and economic factors are key determinants of the use of health facilities for child delivery. Addressing these factors is imperative toward achieving improved maternal and child health in Nigeria.
  3,079 117 -
Acute effects of consumption of energy drink on intraocular pressure and blood pressure-pilot study
Jennifer Aleye Ebeigbe, Eki Anita Obahiagbon
January-June 2013, 12(1):20-24
Context: Energy drinks are popular caffeinated beverages believed to improve cognitive function and concentration. They contain two main ingredients taurine and caffeine, which have both been reported to have effects on blood pressure (BP) and intraocular pressure (IOP). Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on IOP and BP of healthy black young subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 undergraduates from the University of Benin, Nigeria, aged 18-30 years (mean 24.43 ± 1.54) were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were of either gender and were divided into experimental and control groups of 25 subjects each. The subjects were told to abstain from caffeine for 48 h prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and BP were measured. The experimental group consumed one can of Red Bull (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 ml) and measurements were repeated at 30, 60 and 90 min while the control group drank 250 ml of water and were tested over the same period of time. Results: When compared to baseline, a significant decrease in mean IOP was observed at 30, 60 and 90 min (P < 0.05) in the experimental group, but there was no significant difference in the mean change of the systolic and diastolic BP (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Results suggest that energy drinks produce a significant reduction in IOP, but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may however reflect the combined effect of caffeine and taurine, as present in Red Bull.
  3,041 143 -
What drives grand multiparous women in rural Nigeria to seek treatment for infertility
Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora, Uchechi Noelene Nzerem, Justus Ndulue Eze
January-June 2013, 12(1):15-19
Context: Infertility is rife in Nigeria. Grand multiparous women are also affected and do seek management for various reasons. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the factors, which compel women with at least five living children and a history of secondary infertility to seek further conception in rural Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study employing in depth interview to study consented participants in a rural mission hospital in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. Research assistants interviewed participants at their second clinic visit for infertility management using a pre tested interview guide. The study lasted for eight months. Principal themes were isolated from the recorded interview and analyzed. Results: Ten women were interviewed with three men who accompanied their wives to the clinic. The main themes evident from the interviews included acquiescence to the male partner's wishes , desirability for male children, desire for more off springs, replacement of demised children, fulfillment of reproductive potentials and not being "out done" by co-spouses in a polygamous setting. Conclusion: Grand multiparous women still consult for infertility in rural Nigeria. Desires for male children or replacement of lost ones are some of the main reasons for such consultations.
  2,910 134 -
Theoretical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation among clinical medical students in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Kelechi E Okonta, Boma A. N. Okoh
January-June 2015, 14(1):42-46
Aim: To assess the knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among clinical medical students of the University of Port-Harcourt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study on the knowledge of CPR among clinical medical students (4 th -6 th year classes) of the University of Port Harcourt. The data collected were analyzed using the Epi info version 7 statistical packages and Chi-square test was used to compare proportions with P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: Two hundred and forty-five questionnaires were distributed with 177 (72.2%) duly filled. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1, the age range was 19-40 years with a mean of 24.50 ΁ 2.79 years. The 6 th year class had 109 (61.6%) respondents, 5 th year had 49 (27.7%) and 4 th year had 19 (10.7%). Forty-six (26.0%) of students had some form of CPR training and 11 (6.2%) admitted having performed CPR. Of the 46 students that had CPR training, 39 (84.8%) did so because it was given to them at some point in their medical training, while 7 (15.5%) acquired the training due to personal interest. One hundred and two (74.6%) students scored <50%, while 45 (25.4%) scored >50%. The number of students scoring >50% increased with increasing class level (P < 0.001). Students with some prior training in CPR (50.0%) scored above average compared to the students without CPR training (16.8%) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a need to periodically and constantly organize CPR for the medical students and incorporating the training in their medical curriculum to enhance better understanding of the procedure.
  2,752 256 1
Microbiological pattern of postcesarean wound infection at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki
Joseph Agboeze, Robinson C. Onoh, Odidika U.J. Umeora, Paul O. Ezeonu, Chukwuemeka Ukaegbe, Azubike K. Onyebuchi, Conrad Egbuji, Emmanuel Ndukwe
July-December 2013, 12(2):99-102
Background: Cesarean section is one of the most common obstetric surgeries done in women of reproductive age group. Postcesarean wound infection is a worrisome occurrence despite the observation of aseptic techniques and administration of potent antibiotics. Common offending organisms include Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas species. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence, risk factors and common bacterial pathogens for surgical site infection (SSI), following cesarean section. Materials and Methods: A prospective surveillance was conducted at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, from July 2011 to August 2012 using a semi -structured questionnaire. The following risk factors were studied, age, parity, booking status, type of cesarean section, duration of labor and length of membrane rupture. Microbiologic culture of those that had wound infection was done. IBM ® SPSS ® statistical software 2007 version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of wound infection was 7.0%. There were 1301 deliveries out of which 399 (30.7%) had cesarean section, and 28 (7.0%) had wound infection following cesarean delivery. Booking status was the only factor that significantly influenced the occurrence of wound infection (P < 0.01). Staphylococcus aureus and Citrobacter spp. were the common organisms isolated. Conclusion: The prevalence of SSI following cesarean section was high and S. aureus and Citrobacter spp. were the common pathogens isolated.
  2,752 216 -
Teething: Beliefs and behaviors of mothers attending well baby clinics in Benin City, Nigeria
Vincent Y Adam, Blessing I Abhulimhen-Iyoha
January-June 2015, 14(1):8-12
Background: Teething is an important developmental milestone in young children. Mothers attribute several symptoms to teething and their beliefs in turn affect their behavior towards the healthcare of children during the period of tooth eruption. This study assessed maternal beliefs and behaviors towards teething in young children in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among mothers who brought their babies to Well Baby Clinics in three health facilities in Benin City, Nigeria. The tool for data collection was a structured researcher-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Mothers of 420 children (mean age 16.2 ± 8.6 months) participated in the study. Over two-third 302 (71.7%) believed that infant teething is associated with various symptoms. The commonest symptoms reported were fever 258 (85.7%) and diarrhea 241 (80.0%) while the least was redness of the gums, 2 (0.7%). A greater proportion of respondents, 224 (74.4%), 186 (61.8%) and 184 (61.1%) managed teething discomfort with teething syrups, tepid sponging and teething toys respectively. More than half of the respondents 263 (54.3%) and 162 (56.3%) gave analgesics to relieve fever and oral rehydration solution (ORS) for diarrhea attributed to the teething process respectively. Conclusion: Mothers' beliefs encourage the use of "teething" as a ready explanation for childhood diseases. They utilize analgesics, ORS, teething syrup and herbal medications to relieve perceived teething symptoms. The misconception about teething can be corrected through health education of mothers when they access health facilities. The mass media may also be employed to reach a larger audience.
  2,642 225 1
Pattern of mesenteric nodules in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital
Ezekiel Enoghama Ugiagbe, Mojisola Olutayo Udoh
January-June 2013, 12(1):31-34
Background: The determination of the nature of mesenteric nodules and the possible identification of the primary site of metastatic neoplasm is imperative as this defines both prognosis and future management of the patients. Aims: This study is aimed at evaluating the pattern of mesenteric nodules in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Setting: The University of Benin Teaching Hospital, between January 2005 and December 2011. Design: A descriptive retrospective study. Materials and Methods: The appropriate data were obtained from the surgical day book of the department of histopathology. The data were analyzed to reflect age, sex, pathological diagnosis, and site of the lesions. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results: A total of 65 cases of mesenteric nodule biopsies were reported during the 7-year period. There were 34 males and 31 females with a male:female ratio of 1.1:1. The age ranged from 4 to 78 years with a mean age of 52.1 ± 13.8 years. The highest incidence was in the 6th decade. Seventy-one percent of the cases were metastatic lesions and 29% were infectious and inflammatory lesions. Of the metastatic lesions, 87% were carcinomas [adenocarcinomas constituted 97.5%], 4.3% were sarcomas, and 8.7% were lymphomas. Of the infectious and inflammatory lesions, 89.5% were nonspecific reactive lymph node hyperplasia and 10.5% were tuberculosis. Thirty-three percent of the metastatic lesions were of gastrointestinal origin, 20% of ovarian origin and 9.2% of unknown primary site. Conclusion: The preponderance of adenocarcinomas in metastatic nodules is similar to those already established in the literature with the gastrointestinal tract and the ovary been the most common sites of origin. Specialized ancillary technique like immunuhistochemistry is highly coveted to confirm the characterization and identification of the site of origin of metastatic mesenteric neoplasms.
  2,759 105 -
Salivary gland tumors, a twenty-year retrospective study
Uchendu Obiora Jude, Adesuwa Noma Olu-Eddo
January-June 2014, 13(1):24-29
This is a retrospective study of salivary gland tumor (SGT) specimens seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) over a 20-year period. It is aimed at determining the epidemiological pattern of these tumors. The materials for this study that consisted of available slides and paraffin-embedded blocks of all SGT specimens received during the study period were evaluated. Data on age, sex, anatomical sites and histologic diagnosis were obtained from the departmental surgical records. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. SGTs are very rare, accounting for 0.32% of specimens received in the UBTH. The female to male ratio was 1:1.3, and the ratio of benign to malignant tumors was 1.8:1. The mean ages for benign and malignant tumors were 37.0 and 43.5 years, respectively. The peak age for benign SGTs was in the 3 rd decade, while malignant tumors showed a peak in the 6 th decade. The parotid gland was most commonly affected (57%). Overall, pleomorphic adenoma was the most common SGT seen, accounting for 53.2% of all the cases. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most frequently encountered malignant SGT (10.1%). The epidemiological pattern of SGT in the study populace is similar to those of other African-based studies but differ slightly from those of the Caucasians.
  2,635 207 3
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomic stressors among direct and nondirect contact health care workers from a Nigerian tertiary health facility
Olufemi O Oyewole, Emmanuel A Adeniyi, Babatunde F Ajayi, Adeyemi A Olajitan, Kolawole S Oritogun
January-June 2016, 15(1):7-13
Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) among health care workers have increased with little information on ergonomic stressors' exposure. Therefore, the exposure of health care workers to ergonomic stressors and the consequent WRMDs were investigated. Materials and Methods: The descriptive cross-sectional study involved 279 stratified participants from various departments of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital. Standardized Nordic and adapted European Foundation questionnaires were used to obtain data on musculoskeletal pain and ergonomic stressors. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: About 48% of the participants reported WRMDs in at least one part of the body during the 12 months preceding the study while 22.2% reported WRMDs in the last 7days. During the preceding 12 months and the last 7 days, the lower back was the most common site of disorders (29.4% and 9.7%, respectively) while the elbow joint was the least affected site. About 49.7% and 42.7% of the clinical staff and nonclinical staff, respectively, reported WRMDs in the last 12 months while 22.3% versus 22.0% reported WRMDs in the last 7 days. Female participants had a higher prevalence of WRMDs but significant gender difference existed for point prevalence only. A majority of the participants (65.8%) were exposed to 11 or more risk factors. There was a significant association between both 12-month and point prevalences of WRMDs on the one hand and exposure to painful tiring positions on the other. Conclusions: The prevalence of WRMDs was high among health care workers with the lower back being the most frequently affected body region. Work involving painful/tiring positions was the most common ergonomic risk factor associated with WRMDs.
  2,588 202 -
Disappearing art of forceps delivery and the trend of instrumental vaginal deliveries at Abakaliki, Nigeria
Robinson Chukwudi Onoh, Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu, Okeudo Chijioke, Tochi Petronilla Onoh, AK Saidu, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu
July-December 2014, 13(2):99-104
Background: Instrumental vaginal deliveries are conducted for either maternal or fetal indication in well-selected cases to optimize feto-maternal outcome. The trend is changing from forceps toward vacuum deliveries in many countries. Objectives: The aim was to determine the rate of instrumental deliveries, the trend and the feto-maternal outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all women that had instrumental delivery over 10 year period (between January 1, 2003 and December, 2012) at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki. Ethical approval was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of our hospital. The retrieved information were coded, entered and analyzed using the 2008 Epi-Info™ version 3.5.1 Statistical Software (Centre for Disease Control, Atlanta GA, USA). Results: A total of 768 instrument deliveries was conducted during the study period giving an instrument delivery rate of 768/20977 (3.7%) of total deliveries and 4.4% (768/17627) of the total vaginal deliveries. Vacuum delivery accounted for 764/768 (99.5%) giving a delivery rate of 764/20977 (3.6%), while forceps was 4/768 (0.5%) with a delivery rate of 4/20977 (0.1%). Within the study period, the trend waned from the maximum of 16.3% in 2003 to 79 (10.3%) in 2005 after which it had an upward spike to 83 (10.8%) in 2006. Thereafter, it decreased in the subsequent years reaching the lowest rate of 37 (4.8%) in 2009 and rose progressively till 2012 to the third highest level of 94 (12.3%). This pattern of trend is similar to findings in vacuum deliveries while forceps deliveries was only conducted in 2004 and 2011 with a percentage of 2 (2%) each. The most common fetal complication was birth asphyxia. No maternal mortality was recorded. Conclusion: Vacuum delivery was a common obstetric practice and has almost replaced forceps deliveries in our setting.
  2,593 167 -
Histomorphological study of leprosy
Veena Shivamurthy, Hurukadli Gurubasavaraj, Pattabhirama Sastry Shashikala, Prakash Kumar
July-December 2013, 12(2):68-73
Context: Leprosy still continues to be an important public health problem. Aims: The present study was undertaken to study the histopathological features of leprosy in skin biopsies and to categorize them into various types based on microscopy, bacterial index of granuloma and to correlate with clinical presentations whenever possible. Materials and Methods: Skin biopsies after adequate fixation in 10% of formalin, were routinely processed and paraffin embedded sections of 5 μ thickness were stained with H and E and fite -faraco stain and were studied microscopically. Results: A total of 200 skin biopsies were obtained from patients with an age range of 7 -85 years, majority were in 3 rd decade, with male to female ratio of 2.6:1. Borderline tuberculoid was the most common type of leprosy (72.5%). Most common clinical feature was loss of sensation. Atrophic epidermis and grenz zone was more common in lepromatous leprosy and borderline leprosy. There were 6 biopsies with lepra reaction, 4 (66.6%) were of type 1 and 2 (33.3%) were of type 2 reactions. Majority of biopsies were of paucibacillary type (77%) and rest (23%) were of multibacillary type, clinicopathological correlation was observed in 150 biopsies (75%). Conclusions: For accurate diagnosis, correlation of clinical and histopathological features along with bacterial index appears to be more useful than considering any of the single parameters alone.
  2,502 202 1
Exophthalmometric value and palpebral fissure dimension in an African population
Waheed A Ibraheem, Anifat B Ibraheem, Charles O Bekibele
July-December 2014, 13(2):90-94
Background: Normative data for exophthalmometric values and palpebral fissure dimensions are important for earlier diagnosis of orbital and palpebral fissure pathologies. Objective: To describe the normal exophthalmometric values and palpebral fissure dimensions among healthy adults of Black race. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Population based (general community). Method: Population-based multistage random sampling was used to recruit 1020 subjects who had no orbital or eye lid diseases and were free from systemic disease like thyroid eye disease that may affect orbital volume. These healthy adult subjects had their exophthalmometric values and palpebral fissure dimensions (horizontal and vertical palpebral fissure, lateral and medial canthal distances, inter-outer canthal distance, inter-inner canthal distance, margin reflex distance, and lid crease) measured with a Hertel's exophthalmometer and a plain non-stretchable plastic ruler, respectively. Results: A total of 1020 subjects (515 females and 505 males) of age range 16-85 years were studied. The mean ± SD exophthalmometric values were 15.27 ± 2.5 and 15.31 ± 2.4 mm for the right and left eyes, respectively. In the right eye, the mean palpebral fissure height was 8.3 mm, mean palpebral fissure width was 32.1 mm, mean upper eyelid crease was 7.1 mm, mean margin reflex height was 3.2 mm, mean lateral canthal distance was 12.9 mm, and the mean medial canthal distance was 10 mm at primary position of gaze. Conclusions: Exophthalmometric values and palpebral fissure dimensions were obtained among healthy adult Nigerians. Knowledge of these normal parameters is valuable in the management of eyelids and orbital diseases, as well as in manufacturing spectacles.
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Pattern and outcome of admissions at the children emergency room at the Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki
Onyinye U Anyanwu, Obumneme B Ezeanosike, Chinonyelu T Ezeonu
January-June 2014, 13(1):6-10
Context: The children emergency room (CHER) in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA) is one of the units o pediatrics department specialized in meeting the unique needs of children during medical emergencies. A description of the pattern and outcome of its admissions and factors that may contribute to their outcome will help proffer solutions in health care planning with regards emergency care in Abakaliki. Aims: To determine the pattern and outcome of CHER admissions at Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki (FETHA). Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of CHER admissions from 1 st of January to 31 st of December 2012. The Nurses book of statistics and case notes of patients in the CHER of FETHA Ebonyi state, a multi-specialty, children's referral, tertiary health hospital in Ebonyi State were used. Statistical analysis used: Descriptive analysis using SPSS version 20 (IBM statistics). Results: Over the period, 1022 patients were seen with a mean age of 1.9 + 2.6 years. Males were 58.8%, 41.2% were females. The most common diagnosis was diarrheal disease (36.1%) followed by malaria (16.2%) and pneumonias (11.7%). A mortality of 10% was recorded while 66.6% were discharged home, 3.8% discharged against medical advice while 19.6% were transferred to other units in the ward. Majority of deaths were in infancy (57.8%), more in males (69.6%), and from diarrheal disease (43.1%). Conclusions: There is a high mortality ratio of patients at CHER in our setting, attributable mainly to preventable causes like diarrhea. This raises concerns that parental education on health promoting and preventive measures may be low.
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Atrial septal defect (secundum) with tricuspid regurgitation in a young adult cadaver
Vaishaly K Bharambe, Neelesh S Kanaskar, Archana Chirag Buch, Sapna P Shevade
July-December 2014, 13(2):110-112
This report describes a case of a young adult cadaver found to be having atrial septal defect (ASD) of secundum type along with tricuspid regurgitation during routine dissection by medical students. The ASD had a maximum diameter of 8 mm. The report discusses the embryological development of the interatrial septum along with the possible development of this anomaly. The article goes on to discuss the natural history of ASDs of the secundum type, the modes of investigation used today and the significance of socioeconomic status in relation to ASD.
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Information on the effects of physical workout and diet on diabetic patients
Mohammad Asif
January-June 2013, 12(1):38-43
Diabetes is a leading cause of premature deaths. Most common type of diabetes, type-2 diabetes, usually begins when a person is in his or her 40s, but diabetes is not inevitable. Minor changes in your life-style can greatly reduce your chances of getting this disease. Diabetes is a disorder in which the body does not use the sugars in food in the usual way. Normally, digested food, changes into glucose, which body uses for fuel. Blood carries glucose to the cells where a hormone called insulin allows it to enter the cells. Type-2 diabetics produce too little insulin in response to a given glucose load in a meal or resistant to insulin action and or dump excess glucose from the liver. High levels of blood glucose lead to serious complications. Type-2 diabetes is a non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at a global level. As healthy dietary pattern has beneficial effects on both human health and regarding the development and treatment of type-2 diabetes, promoting adherence to this pattern is of considerable public health importance. Type-2 diabetes if not properly managed, can lead to: Heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, peripheral nerve damage, leg and foot amputations and death.
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